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The English Bible: an external and critical history

John Eadie The English Bible: an external and critical history of the various English translations of Scrupture, with remarks on the need of revising the English New TestamentJohn Eadie, D.D., LL.D.

The English Bible:
an external and critical history of the various English translations of Scrupture, with remarks on the need of revising the English New Testament

London, Macmillan and Co, 1876, 971 pages.

Eadie, John, D.D., LL.D. a distinguished divine of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, was born at Alva, Stirlingshire, May 9, 1810. He graduated from the Universityof Glasgow, studied at the Divinity Hall of the Secession Church (United Presbyterian), and in 1835 was ordained pastor of the Cambridge Street Church, Glasgow, in which he speedily attained great eminence and usefulness. He was regarded as the leading representative of the denomination to which he belonged and of the city which has always been its stronghold. As a preacher he was distinguished for his hard common- sense and occasional flashes of happy illustration, for his masculine piety, deep earnestness, and breadth of sympathy, both intellectual and emotional. He was frequently called to other important charges, but was too strongly attached to Glasgow to leave. In 1836 he removed with his congregation to a new and beautiful church at Lansdowne Crescent, where his influence continued unabated until his death, June 3, 1876. Dr. Eadie bore the reputation of extensive and profound scholarship, and in 1843 was appointed by the Church to the chair of hermeneutics and the evidences of natural and revealed religion in Divinity Hall. As a critic he was acute and painstaking, as an interpreter eminently fair-minded. In the pulpit, as in the professor's chair, his strength lay in, the tact with which he selected the soundest results of Biblical criticism, whether his own or that of others, and presented them in a clear and connected form with a constant view of their practical bearing. If this last fact gave a non-academic aspect to some of his lectures, it rendered them not less interesting and probably not less useful to his auditors. Being engaged in two distinct offices, either of which were sufficient to claim all his energies, he nevertheless found time for an amount of work in a third sphere, of which the same thing may be said. Most of his works were connected with Biblical criticism and interpretation, some of them being designed for popular use and others being more strictly scientific. To the former class belong his contributions to the Biblical Cyclopaedias of Kitto and Fairbairn, his edition of Cruden's Concordianae, Oriental History, and his discourses. The Life of Dr. Kitto obtained a deserved popularity, also his Dictionary of the Bible for the

Young, Lectures on the Bible to the Young, etc. His last work, the History of the English Bible (1876, 2 volumes), will probably be the most enduring memorial of his. ability as an author. He is the author of valuable expositions on the Greek text of Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Thessalonians. See his Lie, by Brown (Lond. 1878). (W.P.S.)

Contents of Volume 1


Old Versions of the Scriptures in Keltic Dialects of Britain ― in Anglo-Saxon ― The English Tongue ― Saxon Element. ― First Period ― Caedmon ― Guthlac ― Aldhelm ― Bede ― King Alfred ― Anglo-Saxon Glosses ― AElfric. ― Second Period ― The Normans ― Introduction of French ― Two Languages ― Ascendancy of English ― Effects of the Norman Conquest upon the English Tongue ― Translations into Early English ― The Ormulum ― Schorham and Hampolt ― Gospels and Psalms first selected for Translation ― Popularity of the Psalter ― Anglo-Saxon and Old English in Scotland.


Reasons why Men should have the Word of God in their own Tongue ― Time and Place of Wycliffe's Birth ― Academic Life ― Preferred to Rectory of Lutterworth ― His Doctrines condemned ― Death from Paralysis ― Literary Works ― Three Epochs in his Life.

Various Influences which led Wycliffe to translate the Scriptures ― Papal Rapacity ― The Great Schism ― Degeneracy of Mendicant Orders ― Alarming Condition of the State and the Church ― The Black Death ― Wat Tyler's Revolt ― Not connected with Wycliffe's Teachings ― Wycliffe no Demagogue ― Polemical Tractates ― An English Bible the Nation's Need ― His Purity of Character ― His Aim in translating the Scriptures ― The First Translator of the Entire Bible into English ― Trevisa's Claims ― Groundless Assertions of More and others ― His Eulogy.

Wycliffe's Personal Work in the Translation ― Nicholas de Hereford ― The Continuator ― Purvey ― His Prologue and Revisiou ― Spread of Education ― English of Wycliffe ― Still easily read ― Obsolete Terms ― Similar Terms which still survive in Scotch ― Slight Change of Spelling gives Modern Aspect to many of his Words.

Rapid Diffusion of Wycliffe's Bible ― Great Interest of Surviving Copies ― Hostility to Wycliffe's Bible ― His Writings and his Bones condemned to the Flames ― Persecution of his Followers ― The Term "Lollard" ― Act de Heretico Gomburendo ― Passed at the Instigation of Archbishop Arundel ― Fires of Smithfield ― Execution of Lord Cobham ― The Arundel Constitutions ― The Commons address the King on the Wealth of the Church ― War with France ― Stealthy Reading of the Bible ― Cost of a Bible ― A Crime to possess a Copy ― Nefarious Means of Detection ― Attachment of Wycliffites to Scripture ― The "Bible Readers" ― Influence of Wycliffe had not ceased when that of Tyndale began ― Translations in Scotland ― The Old Scottish Tongue.


Wycliffe's Bible only a Version from a Version ― Knowledge of Greek in Britain ― Early Teachers of Greek ― Influence of the Knowledge of Greek upon the Study of the Scriptures ― Invention of Printing ― Gutenberg ― Caxton.

Date and Place of Tyndale's Birth disputed ― Goes to College at an Early Age ― Early Devotion to the Scriptures ― Excellence of his Character ― May have studied under Erasmus at Cambridge ― Was Tyndale ordained? ― Tutor in the House of Sir John Walsh ― His Translation of the Enchiridion of Erasmus ― Railed at by the Clergy ― Leaves the Family of Sir John Walsh ― Asks Admission into the Household of Tunstall ― Humphrey Munmouth's Kindness to him ― His Manner of Life in London ― The Value of Money then ― The Title "Sir" as given to Tyndale.

Tyndale leaves England ― Takes up his Residence at Hamburg ― Not a Lutheran ― His Work different from that of Luther ― Did he visit Wittemberg ? ― Connection with Luther ― Knowledge of German ― Leaves Hamburg for Cologne ― Might to Worms ― Printing of Octavo and Quarto Editions of his New Testament.

Tyndale's Noble and Disinterested Motives ― Sacrifices ― Modesty ― Scholarship ― Sole Translator ― Friar Roye ― Grammars and Lexicons within his Reach ― Greek Testament of Erasmus ― Tyndale translated directly from the Greek.

Relation of Tyndale's New Testament to German Version of Luther ― Alleged Germanisms merely Old English ― Did not translate from the Vulgate ― Blunders of Macknight and others on this point ― Tyndale's Untrammelled Use of the Vulgate ― It suggests many Renderings to him ― Defects of the Version ― Neglect of Connecting Particles ― Occasionally Paraphrastic ― Quaint and Homely Renderings ― Happy and Pithy Phrases ― Fuller's Eulogy ― Archaic Forms and Irregular Spelling ― Tyndale's Volumes despatched to England.

Date of the Arrival of Tyndale's New Testaments in England ― Reasons against date assigned by Anderson and others ― Testimony of Cochlaeus ― Activity of Garret ― Cottysford ― Henry's Letter to Luther ― Seizure of Garret at Oxford ― Trial of Prior Barnes ― Necton's Confession ― Circulation of the New Testament.

Fierce Opposition to the New Testament by Men in authority ― Position of Wolsey ― Tunstall's Manifesto ― Archbishop Warham's Mandate ― Bishop Nikke's Letter ― Third Edition of New Testament issued at Antwerp ― Conveyed to England along with Cargoes of Wheat ― Secret Circulation ― Detection and Arrests ― Efforts to check the Torrent at its Source in Antwerp ― Copies of New Testament collected and burned ― Harman ― Hacket's Zeal gets him into Trouble ― Herman Rinck of Cologne ― Treaty of Cambray ― Tunstall outwitted by Packington ― George Constantine ― More's Perplexity ― Bishop Nikke's Despair ― Another Condemnation of the New Testament ― Prohibitions and Burnings of New Testament ineffectual ― Charged by Tunstall with more than Two Thousand Errors.

Critical Vituperation of More ― Tyndale's Answer ― The two Men did not understand each other ― More's Anomalous Character ― His Zeal against Heretics ― His Outrageous Railing ― His Opinion with regard to Translations ― His Criticism of Tyndale's English ― His Confession of Defeat.

Tyndale's whole Nature filled with his Work ― Rebuts Objections against an English Translation ― Prior Buckenham's Reply to Latimer ― Tyndale joined by Fryth at Marburg ― Translates the Pentateuch and Jonah ― His Expositions ― Bilney's Martyrdom ― How Tyndale acquired his Knowledge of Hebrew ― Translated directly from the Hebrew ― Token of his Love of Hebrew Study ― Proofs of his Knowledge of Hebrew ― Quaint and Homely Renderings in his Pentateuch.

Tyndale takes up his Final Abode at Antwerp ― Fryth wins the Crown of Martyrdom ― Tyndale's Desire to improve his Translation of New Testament ― George Joye's Edition ― Tyndale's Revised Translation ― Warns against Joye's Production ― Joye's Duplicity ― His Apology ― His Account of the Spurious Editions ― Joye's Change of the Word "Resurrection" into "Life after this" ― Joyo rebuts the Charge of Covetousness ― His Ambition and Spite ― Not privy to the Plan for apprehending Tyndale ― Titles and Prologues of Tyndale's Second Edition ― His Protestation ― The Revision thorough ― Collation of the Two Editions ― Terms changed in course of Successive Editions ― Harman released from Prison ― Tyndale presents Queen Anne with Copy of his Revised Edition ― Tyndale's Third Edition ― Collation ― Edition of 1535 marked by Peculiar Spelling.

Vaughan's Interviews with Tyndale ― Tyndale's Manner of Life at Antwerp ― Sir T. Elyot undertakes the Task of seizing Tyndale ― Thomas Poyntz ― Philips and Donne win Tyndale's Confidence and betray him ― His Imprisonment in Castle of Vilvorde ― Vain Efforts of Poyntz and Tibold to procure his Release ― Tyndale'B New Testament printed in England ― Crumwell writes twice in his Favour ― Touching Letter of Tyndale to Marquis of Bergen-op-Zoom ― His Trial ― His Martyrdom and Last Words ― Tyndale's Independence of Wycliffe.

Tyndale's New Testaments find their way into Scotland ― Patrick Hamilton ― Letter of Ales to James V. ― Henry Forrest of Linlithgow condemned and burned.


Comparison of the Characters of Tyndale and Coverdale ― Coverdale's Birth and Early History ― Patronage of Crumwell ― Connection with Barnes ― Influence on Thomas Topley ― Association with Tyndale ― In Obscurity ― Decision of Council at Westminster, in regard to Question of Authorized Bible ― Latimer's Letter to the King ― Convocation of 1534 ― Cranmer's Project ― Bishop Gardyner's Part in the Work ― Coverdale's Translation steals as a Stranger into the Country ― Time eventful ― Title-page, Dedication, and Prologue ― Preface to the Apocrypha ― Probably printed by Froscho ver, of Zurich ― All Divinity Lectures shall be on the Scriptures.

Change in Title from Queen Anne to Queen Jane ― Coverdale not self-moved, but urged by Others, to the Work of Translation ― Froude's Error in representing the King as originating the Version ― Coverdale the One Workman ― Errors of Whittaker, Blunt, and Others ― Coverdale's Views on Translation ― His Version taken from German and Latin ― "Used Five Sundry Interpreters" ― Error in Title-page of "Bagster's Second Modern Edition" of Coverdale ― Blunders of Whittaker ― Ginsburg's Remarks ― Coverdale's Old Testament based chiefly on Zurich Bible.

Coverdale's Notes ― Whence Derived ― Examples in Detail ― Collation of some Verses of Genesis as found in Tyndale and Coverdale ― Coverdale's New Testament Based on Tyndale's, with many Variations ― Renderings of Coverdale retained in Authorized Version.

Quaint and Antique Renderings in Coverdale ― Obsolete Terms ― Coverdale always musical ― New Editions ― The Diglott ― Coverdale's Bible printed at Zurich, published in London.


This Bible a Compilation ― Title-page and Dedication ― The Compiler John Rogers ― Thomas Matthews an Assumed Name ― Personal History of Rogers ― Quits England for Antwerp ― Intimacy with Tyndale ― Marriage ― Origination of the Volume not known ― Grafton and Whitechurch assume the burden of Printing ― Inaccurate Statements in regard to this Bible by Grafton and Others.

Matthew's Bible made up of the Translations of Tyndale and Coverdale ― Respective Parts of each ― Mr, Fry's Collation ― The First Authorized Version.

The Work of Rogers not merely Mechanical ― Prefatory Matter ― Rogers did not attempt a thorough Revision ― Differences between Coverdale and Matthew ― Notes at the Ends of the Chapters ― Anti-Papal Notes.

Cranmer's Connection with Matthew's Bible ― His Letters to Crumwell ― Royal Proclamation ― Peculiar Decision and Boldness implied in licensing Matthew's Bible at such a time ― The Dedication ― Grafton's Fortune embarked in the Enterprise ― His Fear of Rival Editions ― The Age of Hand-Bibles not yet come.

Revised Edition of Matthew's Bible ― Richard Taverner ― Dedication ― His Scholarship ― Changes made by him ― Other Editions of Matthew's Bible ― Rogers returns to England ― Obtains Preferment ― Re-establishment of Popery under Mary ― Rogers a Prisoner in his own House ― Sent to Newgate ― Examined before the Privy Council ― Condemned along with Hooper ― His Martyrdom ― His Descendants ― Marbeck's Concordance ― Marbeck condemned, but not executed ― "Servant" altered into "Knave,".


Coverdale chosen by Crumwell to revise Matthew's Bible ― Errors of Hume and Others in regard to Origin of this Revision ― Printed at Paris ― Coverdale and Grafton ― Bonner's Intercourse with them ― The Work forbidden, and the Printer cited before the Inquisitor-General ― Finished in London ― The Title ― Holbein's Frontispiece ― Apology for Want of Notes ― Cover-dale's Pliancy ― Crumwell's Injunction for the Circulation of the Bible ― Collation of Tyndale and Great Bible ― Latin Version of Erasmus consulted for New Testament ― Munster and Pagninus for Old Testament ― Collation of Second and Twenty-third Psalms ― Attempts of Clergy to frustrate Crumwell's Proclamation ― The Bible welcomed by the People.

Cranmer's Interest in a New Edition of the Bible ― His Letter to Crumwell ― Royal Patent ― Fulke's Story ― Coverdale Editor of the Second Great Bible as well as of the First ― Cranmer's Prologue ― Title ― William Barlow.

Changes in Edition of 1540 mainly suggested by Munster's Latin Version ― Examples ― Collation ― Successive Editions of Great Bible ― The Authorized Bible ― Examples of its Inferiority as a Translation ― Period of Stormy Transition ― Scenes at Bible Readings ― Demand for an English Bible the Political Cry of the Age ― Heresy and Treason ― Crumwell's Fall ― First Edition bearing the Names of Tunstall and Heath ― Anthony Marler ― Royal Proclamation ordering all Churches to provide themselves with a Bible of the Largest Volume ― Royal Warrant for Price of Bibles.

Bonner's Injunction in favour of Bible Circulation ― Abuses ― Reaction ― Proposed Revision in the interest of Ecclesiastical Intolerance ― Gardyner's List of Latin Words to be retained ― Cranmer defeats Gardyner's Schemes ― Reading of the Bible to be placed under legal restraint ― Various Abuses ― Cruel and Absurd Restrictions ― Martyrdom of Anne Askew ― "The Supplication of the Poor Commons,".

Enmity of Ecclesiastics in Scotland to English Bible ― Beaton's List of Intended Victims ― Trial of Thomas Eorrest, Vicar of Dollar, and others ― Lord Maxwell's Motion ― Chancellor Dunbar's Dissent ― Every Man free to read the Scriptures in his own Tongue ― Regent's Proclamation ― Work of Murder recommenced ― George Wishart.

Accession of Edward VI. ― Removal of all Restrictions on Bible Reading ― Opposition to English Bible in various Parts of the Country ― Insurrection in Devonshire ― Sir John Cheke's Translation ― Numerous Editions of the Bible in the Reign of Edward ― Cranmer and the Burning of Joan of Kent ― Accession of Mary ― Gardyner and Bonner ― Character of Gardyner ― Heath ― The Bible even in Effigy not to be endured now ― Nor any Fragment or Text ― Bonner's wrathful Mandate ― Numbers who perished during Mary's Reign ― Proclamation against Reading and Importation of Scriptures ― John Rogers the first to die under Mary ― Cranmer, Ridley, Hooper, and Others follow ― life of Coverdale after Publication of Great Bible ― Summoned before Mary's Council and made a Prisoner at large ― Macalpine and Coverdale ― Danish King's Letters in favour of Coverdale ― His Release and Departure to Denmark ― Gardyner's Death ― Persecution carried on by Bonner and Pole ― Coverdale returns Home after Accession of Elizabeth ― Public Merits not rewarded ― The Living of St. Magnus ― His Poverty ― Death ― Character ― Unjustly disparaged by Anderson ― His Epitaph.


Contents of Volume 2


Marian Refugees ― Geneva ― Whittingham ― His New Testament ― Genevan Bible ― Those Employed in the Revision ― Dedication to Queen Elizabeth ― To the Christian Reader ― Causes of its Popularity ― Breeches Bible.

The Genevan a Revision of Tyndale collated with Great Bible ― Collation showing this, and also Influence of Beza ― A decided Advance on the Great Bible ― Excerpts ― Changes to the better in the Apocrypha.

Terms with Latin Signification ― Felicitous Renderings ― Antique Words and Senses ― Old Spelling ― Unwarrantable Supplementary Clauses ― Marginal Notes ― Calvinism of Notes ― Excellence of Version.

Bodley's Patent for printing Genevan Bible ― Not printed in England during Parker's Life-time ― Tomson's Revision ― Great Popularity ― Vitality ― Esme Stuart and Cobham.

Genevan Bible in Scotland ― " Common Band" of Protestant Nobles ― Scottish Scholars who might have taken part in Biblical Revision ― Publication of Genevan Version and First General Assembly of the Kirk ― First Edition printed in Scotland ― Measures for increasing its Circulation ― English of the South intelligible to Scottish Population ― Overture for Revision of Genevan Version.

Genevan the favourite Volume in Scottish Families ― Laud's Dislike to it ― Attacks upon it by Howson and Martin ― Priest Hamilton and his Attack.


Early Part of Elizabeth's Reign beset with Difficulties ― Agnes Prest and Joan Waste ― Elizabeth's Regard for the Scriptures ― Her Eagerness for Uniformity ― Different Bibles in Circulation ― Parker and the Proposal for another Revision ― His Coadjutors ― The Various Translators ― Bible Finished and Presented to the Queen ― Parker on Affectionate Terms with Fellow-Workers.

Description of First Edition of Bishops' Bible ― Parker's Preface ― No Royal Confirmation ― Rebellion of Northern Earls ― Critical Remarks by Lawrence ― New Testament Revised ― Collation of Three Versions in Ezekiel and Matthew ― Notes ― Burleigh's Portrait ― Price.

Specimens of Literal Translations ― Supplements ― More Stately than Precise ― Want of Uniformity ― The Great Bible superseded ― Three Versions in Circulation ― Martin's Attack and Fulke's Defence.


This Version taken from the Vulgate ― Account of the Vulgate ― The Church of Rome ― Its Reluctance to give Vernacular Versions to the People ― Catholic Refugees in Reign of Elizabeth ― Seminary at Douai ― New Testament Translated at Rheims ― Martin and Allen ― Preface to New Testament ― Motives for translating ― Method of Translation ― Close Adherence to Latin Text ― Answers of Fulke and Cartwright ― Reasons for Translating from Vulgate ― Polemical Notes ― Translated with the Greek Text before them ― Latinized English ― Good Renderings ― Use of the Genevan and the Bishops' ― Uniformity ― Rheims New Testament appealed to by Mary, Queen of Scots, on the Evening before her Execution.

Old Testament published at Douai ― Described ― Preface sets forth Impediments ― Gives Reasons for Translating from Latin Text ― For Strictness in Translating some Words ― Obscure Renderings, especially in Psalter ― Idiomatic Renderings ― Romish Notes ― Controversy between Fulke and Martin ― Whitgift and Cartwright ― Table of Protestant Errors ― Second Edition ― Changes in subsequent Versions ― Challoner and Lingard ― Theological Nomenclature.


King James ― Strange Incidents of Infantine Years ― His Character presents a species of Dualism ― Belief in Kingly Supremacy ― Early Knowledge of Scripture ― Fondness for Theological Discussion ― Intolerance ― Changes of Opinion ― Flatteries heaped upon him ― The Millenary,Petition ― Hampton Court Conference ― Dr. Reynolds ― The King and the Genevan Notes ― New Translation agreed to ― Bancroft's Correspondence with regard to it ― Profusion and Poverty of the King ― The Board of Revisers ― Short Notices ― Rules laid down for the Revision ― Revision not Translation ― Their own Arguments for Revision ― Their Commendation of Scripture Study ― Completion of the Work ― Published ― Dedication to the King ― The Clause, "Appointed to be read in Churches" ― Galloway, the Royal Chaplain ― Fuller's Eulogy of the New Bible.

Constant Use of Hebrew and Greek Originals ― Hebrew Text ― Greek Text ― Stephens and Beza ― Marginal Notes ― No Historical Notes ― Help from various Translations ― Other Helps ― Selden's Glimpse into their Method of Procedure ― Alternative Renderings in Margin ― Influence of Bishops' ― Of Earlier Versions ― -Care in Choice of Words ― Excellence of English Style ― Hebrew Phrases ― Ingenious Turns of Diction ― The English specially Saxon ― Terms occurring only once ― License taken in Translating the Apocrypha ― Simplicity, Clearness, and Harmony ― Universality of Adaptation ― The English of the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century.

Different Fate of Words in Margin and in Text ― Words and Phrases in Contents of Chapters which have wholly or nearly passed away ― Obsolete Words in Text ― Words changed in Meaning ― Archaisms ― Words which have only their Latin Meaning ― Peculiar Phrases and Syntax ― Varying Forms ― Old Use of "His" ― Variations in Spelling ― Various Peculiarities.

Hostility to their Version anticipated by Translators ― Charges of Broughton, Gell, and Ward ― "Witchcraft " ― "God Save the King " ― Ecclesiastical Predilection ― Doctrinal Influence ― Anti-Popish Leanings ― How far Beza was followed.

Supplemental Words ― Italics ― Supplements often unnecessary ― Sometimes unwarranted ― Headings of Chapters made by Command ― Some Particulars regarding.

The Barkers and the Printing of Authorized Version ― Bibliography ― First Editions brought into Correspondence with the Bishops' and the Genevan ― Specimens of Inaccuracy in Early Issues ― Various Editions ― Edition of Buck and Daniel ― Kilburne on the Errors in Editions of Hill and Field ― Field's Pearl Bible ― Assembly's Annotations ― Lightfoot on the Apocrypha ― Editions of Blayney and Others ― American Revised Edition ― Punctuation and Paragraph Marks.

Scotland never had any Indigenous Translation ― Content to receive its Bible from Abroad and especially from England ― Authorized Version gradually made its way in Scotland ― Editions Printed in that Country ― Anderson's Patent ― Numerous and Gross Blunders in Widow Anderson's Bibles ― And in those of her Successors ― James Watson's Bibles ― Row's Proposals for Revision ― Bible Monopoly in Scotland ― The "Sweet Singers" and their Rejection of Authorized Arersion ― Superstitious Use of the Bible ― Misquotations ― Number of Chapters, Verses, Words, and Letters in Bible ― Wonderful and Suggestive History of English Bible.


The Bible at once Divine and Human ― Hostility to Settlement of the Text ― Labours of Origen, Jerome, and Robert Stephens ― Walton and Owen ― Bengel, Mill, and Bentley ― Various Scholars on the Desirableness of Revision of Authorized Version ― The Long Parliament and Bill for Revision ― Changes in the Original Text call for Revision of the Version ― Nature of a True Revision ― Futility of Objections ― No Ground for Alarm ― Strange Specimens of. Revision by Scarlett and Heinfetter ― Other Examples of Revision ― Works on Revision ― Tischendorf and Tregelles.

Defects of Authorized Version ― Ambiguities ― Inexact Renderings ― Clauses Liable to be Misunderstood ― Misleading Punctuation ― Difficult Idioms and Technical Words.

Want of Uniformity ― Variation so far Allowable ― Terms Characteristic of a Divine Revelation of Love to a Sinful World ― Variations which are Unnecessary ― Capricious ― Prejudicial ― Motives Inducing ― "Parable," "Love" ― " Straightway " in Mark ― Connection weakened by Variation ― Example in St. Paul's Address at Athens ― His Repeated Use of the Same Term not brought out ― Other Examples of Variation.

One English Term represents several Greek Words ― Distinctions thereby Effaced ― Several Examples ― Crown, People, Godhead, True, Temple, Life ― John xxi, 15-17 ― New Light ― Clusters of Instances ― Child, Beasts, Die and Dead, World, Will, Weep, Servant, Judge, Wash, Remission, Repent, Hell ― Devil and Demon ― Miracle, Sign, Wonder ― Anacolouthon and Paronomasia.

The Greek Article ― Inconsistencies of Translators in dealing with ― Before the Name Christ ― Some Point or Specialty lost by its Omission ― Wrongly Inserted ― Overpressed.

The Greek Tenses ― Aorist misrendered by Perfect ― Perfect by Present ― Perfect and Pluperfect ― Epistle to Hebrews characterized by use of Perfect ― Imperfect not correctly Rendered ― Mark and the Use of the Present ― Greek Verbs corresponding to "become" and "be" confounded.

Prepositions ― Misrendering of ενδιαειςεκ and απουπερ and περιεπι and προς ― The conjunctions οπως and ινα.

Proper Names ― Most Familiar Forms employed ― Jehovah ― Proper Names
variously spelled ― Official Names ― Chaldee Names.

Topography and Productions of Palestine ― The Land illustrates the Book ― Terms belonging- to Botany and Zoology misrendered ― Specific Topographical Terms ― Measures, Weights, and Coins ― Qualifications of a Translator ― Hallam and Newman on the English of the Authorized Version ― Brief Account of the Revision at present in progress.